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财政部长对营改增表述微变

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年10月21日 15:51:21
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(行)(情)(况)(的)(报)(告)(,谈)(到)(下)(一)(步)(财)(政)(工)(作)(时)(表)(示)(,适)(时)(将)(建)(筑)(业)(、房)(地)(产)(业)(、金)(融)(业)(和)(生)(活)(服)(务)(业)(纳)(入)(营)(改)(增)(试)(点)(。  普)(华)(永)(道)(中)(国)(中)(区)(流)(转)(税)(业)(务)(主)(管)(合)(伙)(人)(李)(军)(告)(诉)(《第)(一)(财)(经)(日)(报)(》记)(者)(,四)(大)(行)(业)(营)(改)(增)(从)(以)(前)(“今)(年)(力)(争)(完)(成)(”的)(表)(述)(转)(为)(“适)(时)(纳)(入)(”,这)(意)(味)(着)(这)(些)(行)(业)(今)(年)(营)(改)(增)(不)(大)(可)(能)(实)(施)(,预)(计)(明)(年)(完)(成)(的)(可)(能)(性)(高)(。  上)(海)(财)(经)(大)(学)(公)(共)(政)(策)(与)(治)(理)(研)(究)(院)(院)(长)(胡)(怡)(建)(告)(诉)(本)(报)(记)(者)(,“适)(时)(”的)(最)(新)(表)(述)(意)(味)(着)(营)(改)(增)(完)(成)(没)(有)(具)(体)(时)(间)(表)(,最)(终)(需)(要)(看)(国)(内)(外)(环)(境)(和)(营)(改)(增)(方)(案)(设)(计)(的)(情)(况)(再)(做)(决)(定)(。  接)(受)(采)(访)(的)(上)(述)(两)(位)(专)(家)(认)(为)(,在)(经)(济)(下)(行)(压)(力)(和)(财)(政)(收)(入)(低)(增)(长)(的)(背)(景)(下)(,四)(大)(行)(业)(营)(改)(增)(延)(期)(或)(受)(减)(税)(对)(税)(收)(收)(入)(冲)(击)(、制)(度)(设)(计)(复)(杂)(性)(和)(利)(益)(调)(整)(复)(杂)(等)(多)(重)(因)(素)(影)(响)(。  营)(改)(增)(或)(2016年)(完)(成)(  营)(改)(增)(自)(2012年)(1月)(试)(点)(以)(来)(,试)(点)(地)(区)(由)(点)(扩)(面)(再)(到)(全)(国)(,试)(点)(行)(业)(也)(陆)(续)(增)(加)(到)(“3+7”(交)(通)(运)(输)(业)(、邮)(政)(业)(、电)(信)(业)(和)(7个)(现)(代)(服)(务)(业)(),目)(前)(仅)(剩)(建)(筑)(业)(、房)(地)(产)(业)(、金)(融)(业)(和)(生)(活)(服)(务)(业)(四)(大)(行)(业)(尚)(未)(纳)(入)(营)(改)(增)(试)(点)(。  营)(改)(增)(是)(“十)(二)(五)(”时)(期)(我)(国)(财)(税)(体)(制)(改)(革)(的)(一)(项)(重)(要)(任)(务)(,2015年)(是)(“十)(二)(五)(”收)(官)(之)(年)(,官)(方)(力)(争)(“十)(二)(五)(”期)(间)(全)(面)(完)(成)(营)(改)(增)(的)(改)(革)(目)(标)(。  今)(年)(6月)(28日)(,楼)(继)(伟)(作)(的)(关)(于)(2014年)(中)(央)(决)(算)(的)(报)(告)(中)(提)(出)(,今)(年)(力)(争)(全)(面)(完)(成)(营)(改)(增)(。  当)(时)(不)(少)(机)(构)(和)(市)(场)(人)(士)(预)(计)(四)(大)(行)(业)(营)(改)(增)(方)(案)(或)(7月)(推)(出)(。  李)(军)(告)(诉)(《第)(一)(财)(经)(日)(报)(》记)(者)(,当)(时)(他)(们)(了)(解)(到)(营)(改)(增)(的)(方)(案)(已)(经)(上)(报)(给)(国)(务)(院)(,等)(待)(国)(务)(院)(常)(务)(会)(议)(审)(阅)(,因)(此)(判)(断)(进)(展)(顺)(利)(的)(话)(方)(案)(最)(快)(有)(可)(能)(7月)(底)(出)(台)(,不)(过)(最)(终)(方)(案)(并)(未)(出)(台)(。  按)(惯)(例)(,如)(果)(国)(务)(院)(常)(务)(会)(议)(批)(准)(营)(改)(增)(方)(案)(,财)(政)(部)(可)(以)(适)(时)(付)(诸)(实)(施)(。  不)(过)(,相)(比)(6月)(底)(时)(的)(表)(述)(,楼)(继)(伟)(最)(近)(两)(次)(营)(改)(增)(表)(述)(有)(些)(变)(化)(。  7月)(底)(,在)(全)(国)(财)(政)(工)(作)(视)(频)(会)(议)(上)(,楼)(继)(伟)(表)(示)(“抓)(紧)(推)(进)(营)(改)(增)(改)(革)(”。前)(述)(8月)(底)(的)(报)(告)(中)(,楼)(继)(伟)(的)(表)(态)(则)(是)(“适)(时)(将)(建)(筑)(业)(、房)(地)(产)(业)(、金)(融)(业)(和)(生)(活)(服)(务)(业)(纳)(入)(营)(改)(增)(试)(点)(”。  胡)(怡)(建)(表)(示)(,从)(字)(面)(意)(义)(来)(看)(,6月)(底)(的)(表)(述)(意)(味)(着)(“今)(年)(争)(取)(完)(成)(营)(改)(增)(”,7月)(底)(的)(表)(述)(透)(露)(出)(“今)(年)(可)(能)(完)(不)(成)(营)(改)(增)(,但)(是)(要)(抓)(紧)(推)(进)(”,而)(8月)(底)(的)(表)(述)(则)(透)(露)(出)(“完)(成)(营)(改)(增)(需)(要)(看)(国)(内)(外)(环)(境)(和)(制)(度)(本)(身)(的)(情)(况)(,再)(最)(后)(确)(定)(具)(体)(时)(间)(表)(”。  李)(军)(表)(示)(,如)(果)(今)(年)(确)(定)(完)(成)(营)(改)(增)(的)(话)(,按)(常)(理)(就)(不)(大)(可)(能)(用)(“适)(时)(”这)(个)(词)(来)(表)(述)(,而)(是)(直)(接)(给)(出)(时)(间)(表)(。综)(合)(各)(种)(因)(素)(,预)(计)(明)(年)(完)(成)(的)(可)(能)(性)(相)(当)(高)(,如)(果)(经)(济)(增)(速)(在)(未)(来)(半)(年)(重)(拾)(升)(势)(的)(话)(,明)(年)(上)(半)(年)(很)(有)(可)(能)(出)(台)(几)(大)(行)(业)(的)(营)(改)(增)(政)(策)(,并)(且)(在)(政)(策)(出)(台)(之)(后)(几)(个)(月)(内)(正)(式)(实)(施)(。  营)(改)(增)(也)(是)(新)(一)(轮)(财)(税)(体)(制)(改)(革)(中)(税)(制)(改)(革)(的)(重)(点)(工)(作)(,而)(根)(据)(财)(税)(体)(制)(改)(革)(的)(时)(间)(表)(,2016年)(要)(基)(本)(完)(成)(财)(税)(改)(革)(的)(重)(点)(工)(作)(和)(任)(务)(,这)(意)(味)(着)(营)(改)(增)(最)(晚)(或)(在)(2016年)(收)(官)(。  减)(税)(力)(度)(或)(超)(预)(期)(  胡)(怡)(建)(称)(,营)(改)(增)(推)(进)(表)(述)(的)(变)(化)(,实)(际)(上)(表)(明)(剩)(下)(的)(四)(个)(行)(业)(是)(否)(马)(上)(纳)(入)(营)(改)(增)(试)(点)(还)(有)(争)(议)(。首)(先)(要)(考)(虑)(的)(是)(,在)(目)(前)(税)(收)(不)(稳)(定)(的)(情)(形)(下)(,推)(进)(营)(改)(增)(是)(不)(是)(一)(个)(好)(时)(机)(?  营)(改)(增)(推)(出)(的)(一)(大)(初)(衷)(在)(于)(减)(轻)(重)(复)(征)(税)(。国)(税)(总)(局)(数)(据)(显)(示)(,从)(2012年)(试)(点)(到)(今)(年)(上)(半)(年)(,营)(改)(增)(累)(计)(减)(税)(4848亿)(元)(。  中)(国)(社)(科)(院)(财)(经)(战)(略)(研)(究)(院)(院)(长)(高)(培)(勇)(曾)(估)(算)(,营)(改)(增)(覆)(盖)(至)(所)(有)(行)(业)(且)(税)(率)(调)(整)(完)(善)(后)(,将)(有)(9000亿)(元)(到)(1万)(亿)(元)(的)(减)(税)(空)(间)(。  李)(军)(对)(本)(报)(记)(者)(表)(示)(,刚)(提)(出)(营)(改)(增)(总)(体)(方)(案)(的)(2011年)(,全)(国)(税)(收)(收)(入)(增)(幅)(约)(22.6%,而)(此)(后)(几)(年)(税)(收)(收)(入)(增)(速)(一)(路)(下)(滑)(,今)(年)(前)(7个)(月)(税)(收)(收)(入)(增)(幅)(实)(际)(只)(有)(5.4%。在)(税)(收)(增)(长)(放)(缓)(的)(情)(形)(下)(,营)(改)(增)(带)(来)(的)(大)(规)(模)(减)(税)(的)(影)(响)(让)(官)(方)(更)(加)(重)(视)(。而)(且)(下)(半)(年)(宏)(观)(经)(济)(看)(起)(来)(并)(不)(乐)(观)(,这)(就)(需)(要)(一)(个)(稳)(定)(的)(税)(收)(收)(入)(来)(保)(证)(财)(政)(支)(出)(、支)(持)(经)(济)(发)(展)(,这)(也)(是)(营)(改)(增)(推)(进)(速)(度)(放)(慢)(的)(一)(大)(原)(因)(。  胡)(怡)(建)(表)(示)(,2014年)(营)(改)(增)(减)(税)(是)(1918亿)(元)(,而)(剩)(下)(的)(四)(大)(行)(业)(营)(业)(税)(税)(收)(占)(营)(业)(税)(总)(税)(收)(比)(例)(约)(为)(67%(四)(大)(行)(业)(年)(营)(业)(税)(税)(额)(约)(1.6万)(亿)(元)(),若)(以)(此)(类)(推)(,四)(大)(行)(业)(纳)(入)(营)(改)(增)(减)(税)(规)(模)(大)(概)(在)(6000亿)(元)(。而)(且)(营)(改)(增)(减)(税)(更)(多)(地)(体)(现)(在)(产)(业)(减)(税)(,下)(游)(行)(业)(可)(以)(获)(得)(上)(游)(行)(业)(的)(进)(项)(抵)(扣)(,所)(以)(减)(税)(力)(度)(可)(能)(超)(出)(了)(政)(府)(的)(预)(期)(。  “营)(改)(增)(的)(减)(税)(是)(普)(遍)(性)(减)(税)(,和)(政)(府)(预)(期)(不)(完)(全)(一)(样)(,政)(府)(更)(希)(望)(高)(新)(技)(术)(企)(业)(、中)(小)(企)(业)(、创)(新)(性)(企)(业)(获)(得)(减)(税)(。”胡)(怡)(建)(称)(。  制)(度)(设)(计)(更)(为)(复)(杂)(  据)(国)(税)(总)(局)(统)(计)(,目)(前)(尚)(未)(改)(革)(的)(建)(筑)(业)(、房)(地)(产)(业)(、金)(融)(业)(和)(生)(活)(服)(务)(业)(涉)(及)(近)(1000万)(户)(纳)(税)(人)(,是)(已)(纳)(入)(营)(改)(增)(纳)(税)(人)(的)(两)(倍)(。  这)(些)(行)(业)(户)(数)(众)(多)(、业)(务)(形)(态)(丰)(富)(、利)(益)(调)(整)(复)(杂)(,特)(别)(是)(其)(中)(房)(地)(产)(业)(、金)(融)(业)(的)(增)(值)(税)(制)(度)(设)(计)(更)(是)(国)(际)(难)(题)(,因)(此)(税)(率)(、计)(税)(方)(法)(、抵)(扣)(方)(式)(、纳)(税)(地)(点)(等)(税)(制)(要)(素)(的)(科)(学)(设)(计)(以)(及)(过)(渡)(政)(策)(的)(合)(理)(安)(排)(,事)(关)(营)(改)(增)(试)(点)(的)(平)(稳)(推)(进)(。  胡)(怡)(建)(告)(诉)(《第)(一)(财)(经)(日)(报)(》记)(者)(,最)(后)(四)(个)(行)(业)(的)(制)(度)(设)(计)(本)(身)(更)(为)(复)(杂)(,涉)(及)(的)(利)(益)(争)(议)(大)(。前)(一)(阶)(段)(的)(营)(改)(增)(可)(能)(是)(普)(遍)(性)(减)(税)(,而)(剩)(下)(的)(四)(大)(行)(业)(营)(改)(增)(则)(是)(结)(构)(性)(减)(税)(,四)(大)(行)(业)(税)(负)(有)(增)(有)(减)(。  “减)(税)(大)(家)(喜)(欢)(,若)(增)(税)(则)(阻)(力)(大)(。从)(现)(在)(看)(,营)(改)(增)(肯)(定)(是)(要)(推)(的)(,只)(不)(过)(用)(什)(么)(方)(案)(来)(推)(。”胡)(怡)(建)(称)(。  四)(大)(行)(业)(的)(增)(值)(税)(税)(率)(基)(本)(的)(倾)(向)(性)(意)(见)(已)(经)(形)(成)(。针)(对)(一)(般)(纳)(税)(人)(,建)(筑)(业)(和)(房)(地)(产)(业)(的)(增)(值)(税)(税)(率)(为)(11%,生)(活)(服)(务)(业)(和)(金)(融)(保)(险)(业)(则)(为)(6%。  目)(前)(,建)(筑)(业)(实)(行)(3%的)(营)(业)(税)(税)(率)(,房)(地)(产)(业)(、生)(活)(性)(服)(务)(业)(和)(金)(融)(保)(险)(业)(实)(行)(5%的)(营)(业)(税)(税)(率)(。  胡)(怡)(建)(表)(示)(,建)(筑)(业)(的)(税)(率)(提)(高)(比)(较)(明)(显)(,本)(行)(业)(的)(试)(点)(企)(业)(税)(负)(增)(加)(的)(概)(率)(较)(大)(,不)(过)(从)(行)(业)(间)(抵)(扣)(角)(度)(来)(看)(,下)(游)(的)(行)(业)(抵)(扣)(力)(度)(也)(更)(大)(,所)(以)(总)(体)(上)(还)(是)(减)(税)(,但)(是)(推)(行)(阻)(力)(比)(较)(大)(。  李)(军)(认)(为)(,营)(改)(增)(的)(延)(后)(,给)(一)(些)(金)(融)(及)(房)(地)(产)(企)(业)(为)(应)(对)(营)(改)(增)(争)(取)(了)(充)(足)(的)(准)(备)(时)(间)(,特)(别)(是)(系)(统)(改)(造)(等)(工)(作)(,但)(也)(给)(一)(些)(有)(大)(宗)(采)(购)(需)(求)(的)(企)(业)(造)(成)(了)(困)(惑)(。  “企)(业)(若)(在)(营)(改)(增)(政)(策)(前)(采)(购)(大)(宗)(物)(品)(,未)(来)(难)(以)(获)(得)(进)(项)(抵)(扣)(。原)(来)(可)(能)(等)(待)(营)(改)(增)(政)(策)(出)(台)(再)(采)(购)(,现)(在)(营)(改)(增)(延)(期)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,企)(业)(不)(得)(不)(首)(先)(考)(虑)(业)(务)(需)(要)(,采)(购)(不)(大)(可)(能)(拖)(太)(长)(时)(间)(。所)(以)(企)(业)(应)(综)(合)(考)(虑)(,在)(采)(购)(策)(略)(及)(税)(务)(处)(理)(上)(进)(行)(调)(整)(和)(优)(化)(。”李)(军)(称)(。  另)(外)(,李)(军)(建)(议)(企)(业)(在)(新)(签)(合)(同)(时)(需)(要)(预)(先)(考)(虑)(未)(来)(纳)(入)(营)(改)(增)(后)(的)(影)(响)(并)(对)(有)(关)(条)(款)(做)(相)(应)(调)(整)(,同)(时)(对)(于)(本)(行)(业)(营)(改)(增)(具)(体)(事)(项)(的)(相)(关)(税)(务)(建)(议)(、诉)(求)(应)(尽)(快)(通)(过)(各)(种)(渠)(道)(向)(政)(策)(制)(定)(部)(门)(及)(时)(反)(映)(。
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